Karol I. Pelc

Karol I. Pelc
Professor of Technology and Innovation Management, Emeritus
School of Business and Economics
Michigan Technological University

E-Mail: kipelc@mtu.edu
Address: 1400 Townsend Dr., Houghton, MI 49931
Phone: (906) 482-8907 (res. 1); (239) 394-6742 (res. 2)
Fax: (906) 487-2944

Biographical Information


Ph.D. in economics/management, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland, 1976.
Ph.D. in electronics, University of Uppsala, Sweden, 1968.
M.S. in electronic engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland, 1958.


Karol Pelc combines professional experience of an engineer and a manager with that of a researcher and teacher. He joined the faculty of Michigan Technological University in 1985. His teaching and research are largely based on or related to international experience in industry and academia. He has worked as a designer of electronic instruments, a manager of manufacturing, and a manager of research laboratory in the electric power industry in Poland. After about 12 years of industrial experience he joined the Technical University of Wroclaw where he coordinated joint university - industry R&D projects and established the Forecasting Research Center, specializing in technological forecasting. Based on his industrial experience and studies, he started to teach graduate courses in R&D management, production management, and technological forecasting, at the same university. He has also served as consultant to several companies and presented invited lecture series in several countries of Europe. In 1981 Dr. Pelc held a visiting professor position at the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay, India. In 1983-84 he was an associate member of the task force for the Project on Innovation Management in Electro-technology at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria. His international experience has been expanded further in 1992 when he was a visiting scholar at the Japan Center for Michigan Universities in Hikone, Japan. During his stay in Japan, in addition to teaching a course of comparative management, for the American and Japanese students at JCMU, Dr. Pelc presented a number of lectures in Japanese universities and conducted research on technology management practices in the Japanese industry. He is continuing this study through active contacts with the Japanese scholars and industry. In 1993 he spent two months as a visiting professor of engineering management at the Stevens Institute of Technology, New Jersey, where he was involved in design of a graduate program in management of technology, under the auspices of the Stevens Alliance. Since 1988 Dr. Pelc has been actively involved in distance education programs. He is teaching, consulting capstone projects and advising graduate students at the National Technological University, Engineering Management Graduate Program. He has also offered a number of special courses to industry (via NTU and Michigan Tech). In 1994, 1995, 1997, 1999, and 2001 he was invited to present lecture series in the International Program of Business and Technology Management at the Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland. . In 1999 he presented an intensive course on “Technology and Production Management” at the L. Kozminski Academy of Entrepreneurship and Management in Warsaw, Poland. In the same sabbatical year, he presented lecture series on Innovation Project Management and a seminar on Knowledge Mapping at the Science Policy Research Unit of the University of Sussex, Brighton, U. K.  In 2002, Dr. Pelc presented the course entitled “Management of Technology and Innovation” at the University of Science and Technology in Beijing, China. The course was attended by the MBA students of the School of Management at that University. In 2003, Dr. Pelc presented a short course in technology and production management at the LKAEM, Warsaw, and a course of quality management for the European MBA Program of the University of Bradford, U. K. and LKAEM.

He was invited by the Kozminski University, Warsaw, to teach the course "Production and Technology Management" in the next three years ( 2007- 2009). In addition to Polish students this course was attended by about 50 international students from several countries of Europe, Asia and Africa. In 2008, Dr. Pelc presented a lecture series/special course on "Global Innovation Networks" at the Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland. It was a part of the International Business and Technology Program attended by participants from several countries of the European Union, China, Japan and Russia. Based on this experience Dr. Pelc developed a new graduate course of “Global Innovation Networks,” which he offered at Michigan Technological University in the summer term of 2009 and 2010. In the fall semesters of 2009 - 2013, Dr. Pelc has been again invited to lecture in Finland on the current trends in global innovation networks and on managing in the global business environment. In May 2010, Dr. Pelc served as a visiting scholar at JCMU in Hikone, Japan, where he presented a special intensive course of “Japanese Innovation Management.” During that visit he also continued research on innovation management practices in Japanese industry.


 During academic years 1992/93 and 1994/95 Pelc acted as academic co-director of the project on education of city managers for Poland "Cities as Cultural Bridges" sponsored by the U.S. Information Agency and organized jointly by Michigan Technological University, Technical University of Wroclaw and Michigan City Management Association. During years 2001 and 2002, he served as the first director of the newly created Center for Technological Innovation, Leadership and Entrepreneurship (CenTILE) at Michigan Tech. In 2001, he initiated and co-founded the Entrepreneurs and Inventors Club at Michigan Tech, which is open to students, faculty and staff of the university as well as to inventors and entrepreneurs from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

In April 2004, Karol Pelc has received the Excellence in Research Award from the International Association for Management of Technology (IAMOT). Please see more details at http://www.admin.mtu.edu/urel/news/media_relations/150/. Information in Polish is available at http://www3.sympatico.ca/bulik/WrzesienKarolPelc.htm

In 2005, Michigan Technological University conferred upon Dr. Karol Pelc the title of Professor Emeritus. He has been appointed by the Michigan State University to serve as a visiting scholar at the Japan Center for Michigan Universities, Hikone, Japan, in the fall of 2005. Observations and experiences during that semester in Japan are presented in the Karol's blog at: http://karol-pelcjapan.blogspot.com/

 The Council for International Exchange of Scholars selected Dr. Pelc to be a Fulbright Professor of Technology and Innovation Management at the University of Maribor, Slovenia, in 2006, under the Fulbright Program of the U. S. Department of State. Karol presents his impressions and observations made during the semester in Slovenia in the blog at the address: http://karol-pelcpictures.blogspot.com/.

In 2014, Karol Pelc received the Fulbright award for visiting professorship in Austria during the spring 2015 at the IMC University of Applied Sciences, Krems, Austria. Pictures related to his experience in Austria during the spring semester 2015 will be placed in the same blog soon.

Karol Pelc serves on the editorial board of the international journal "Transformations," and collaborates as a guest editor with the International Journal of Technology Management (Special Issue 2005) and the International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies. In the latter capacity, in 2009, he edited and published (jointly with prof. D. Senoo, Tokyo Institute of Technology), the Special Issue of that journal (Vol.3, No.1/2, 2009) on the subject of “An Interface Between Strategic Management and Knowledge Management.”

For almost 25 years (1978-2002) he also served on the editorial boards of “Technological Forecasting and Social Change” and “R&D Management” (1980 – 2004).   He is a member of the International Association for the Management of Technology, the IEEE, the Technology Management Council, and the Japanese Business Studies Association. He has published over 130 papers and articles in professional/scientific journals and proceedings, five books, and contributed chapters to seventeen other books.

Research Areas

Karol Pelc's current research interests are centered on management of technology as a new domain of expertise. The following subject areas are included:

  1. Methods of interdisciplinary knowledge mapping
  2. Technology networks and knowledge generating networks
  3. Technology strategy design and evaluation
  4. R&D management and managing product/process development
  5. International technology management and global technology networks
  6. Technological entrepreneurship

Topics of his recent works are :

Knowledge-map-based approach to technology management

Patterns of knowledge generating networks

Evaluation of virtual structures in R&D (projects, teams, organizations)

Analysis of technology strategies and management practices of Japanese corporations

Innovation adoption in social networking 

Teaching Areas

Karol Pelc's teaching interests are closely related to the domain of his research. He believes that three features of university education are of greatest importance:

  • Coordinated learning processes involving both the instructor and students
  • Diffusion of up-to-date knowledge gained through own research of the instructor
  • Opportunity for interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, and synergy in process of study conducted by students of different disciplines e.g. engineering, business, humanities etc.

His main interests are reflected in teaching courses of Management of Technology (BA4600), Management of Technology and Innovation (BA5790), and Economics of Technological Change (EC4800). He is also offering a seminar course for senior and graduate students in which the students are given opportunity to conduct their own research on selected topics and are expected to discuss results in class: Seminar on International Technology Management (BA4680). In addition, Karol Pelc contributed to the course of Project Management (BA4610) that he taught in the past years in a team with Professor A. B. Jambekar. In 2001, he taught a Project Management module (ENG3964) as part of the MTU Enterprise Program. In the academic year 2002/2003, he started to offer a university-wide course for freshmen entitled Knowledge and Wealth (UN1001S48), which presents an introduction to technological entrepreneurship and innovation. In almost all courses taught by Dr. Pelc, there are some case studies discussed or developed to illustrate general concepts, theories or methods. Industrial experience of the instructor is also used quite frequently to support the basic course material. In the academic year 2003/2004, Karol Pelc added the course of International Management (BA4710) to his teaching program. He continues to teach summer classes at MTU. In 2007 and 2008 he offered the graduate course BA5740 Management of Technology and Innovation. In 2009 and 2010, he offered another elective graduate course: BA5790 Global Innovation Networks. The course was attended by the MBA students. In the summers 2011 - 2014, Dr. Pelc presented a new course BA5780 Managing in the Global Environment as part of the MBA Program of Michigan Tech.

Personal Note

Karol Pelc lives in Hancock, Michigan, with his wife Ryszarda Lida Pelc, a poet, writer and freelance journalist. Her poems have been published in several anthologies of American poetry and recognized by poetry societies including the Amherst Society and the National Library of Poetry, which selected her poem "Remember Lake Biwa"(impressions from Japan) for their anthology "Best Poems of 1996." Her poem "Chopin's Prelude" has been published in the Noble House's anthology entitled "Songs of Honor," London and New York, 2006. Lida's poems may be accessed at her blog http://lidapelc.blogspot.com , other texts (some in Polish) are presented in the blog http://ryszardalpelc.blogspot.com . Karol and Lida's son, Darius, a classical pianist and a professor of music, lives in Paris, France, with his wife Sylvia and their two daughters: Caroline, an outstanding French violinist and the first prize winner in several Radio France Violin Competitions (1995 -1999), who graduated as Master of Music, class of violin, at the Conservatoire Royal de Musique in Brussels (2012), performs by invitations at the Royal Opera and the Royal Symphony in Liege (Belgium), and Anne-Sophie who graduated with a BA in international law at the University of Cergy-Pontoise in France and at the University of Dusseldorf in Germany (2015), and continues graduate studies of law at the UCP. Karol and Lida enjoy summers in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and magnificent colors of the fall season on the shores of Lake Superior. They escape for winter and spring to Marco Island, Florida, for a change to subtropical climate and to enjoy the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

An article based on Karol’s childhood memories may be found at http://www.admin.mtu.edu/urel/breaking/2001/pelc.html

Karol's blog address: http://karol-pelc.blogspot.com  His pictures taken during the international travels are placed in albums at: http://picasaweb.google.com/ki4pelc

Recent Publications

Pelc, K. I., Adoption process and complexity of innovation in social networking, presented at the 20th Annual International Conference on Industry, Engineering, and Management Systems, Cocoa Beach, March 23-26, 2014, pp. 23, AIEMS Proceedings of the Conference (2014), and a paper published in the Journal of Management and Engineering Integration, v.7, No. 1/Summer 2014, pp. 92-99.

The paper presents innovation adoption as learning process consisting of six phases. Those phases are defined for innovation in social networking. Each phase is characterized by   “interactivity level” dependent on number and type of social technology elements applied by users. The author suggests application of Jacobs’ complexity dimensions (multiplicity, diversity, interconnectedness) for analysis of innovation adoption process. Two hypotheses are proposed for further research.

Pelc, K. I., Diffusion of innovation in social networking, Chapter in: Zacher, L., Technology – Society – Sustainability, pp. 17, accepted for publication, Warsaw,   forthcoming in 2015.

On basis of literature review and available empirical data, a new, additional dimension of innovation diffusion called “interactivity level” is proposed in this paper. It is specific to innovations in social networking, where the main purpose of innovation is to improve interactive contacts among actors in a network. The interactivity level reflects amount of active knowledge and effective use of social media/technologies.

Pelc, K. I., Global dynamics of innovation in social networking, ASBBS Proceedings 2013, 20th Annual Conference of the American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences, Las Vegas Feb. 21 -24, 2013, v. 20, p. 340 -350. http://asbbs.org/files/ASBBS2013V1/Index.htm

The purpose of this paper is to present a three dimensional model of innovation process applicable for analysis of global dynamics of innovation in social networking. It refers to known models of technological innovation based on two dimensions: (1) Performance evolution in time, usually exponential in nature, e.g. Moore’s law for microelectronic chips and (2) Innovation diffusion with rate expressed by number of adopters vs. time e.g. due to imitation of early adopters or due to public access to innovation sources. On basis of literature review and available empirical data, a new third dimension called (3) Interactivity level is proposed and defined in this paper. It is specific to innovations in social networking. The interactivity level reflects amount of active knowledge and use of social media/technologies. Empirical data are presented to support the model.

Pelc, K. I., Digital economy: Aspects of the global future, (in Polish: Gospodarka cyfrowaaspekty globalnej przyszlosci), Chapter in: L. Zacher (ed.), Our Digital Future, book in Polish: Nasza Cyfrowa Przyszlosc, Committee Poland 2000 Plus, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland 2013, ISBN-978-83-61236-29-0, p. 43 – 62.

Pelc, K. I.  Multidimensional model of technology based on Adam Smith’s theory, (in Polish: Wielowymiarowy model techniki oparty na teorii Adama Smitha), Chapter in: L. W. Zacher (ed.), Science – Technology – Society, book in Polish: Nauka - TechnikaSpoleczenstwo, Poltext, Warsaw, Poland 2012, ISBN 978-83-7561-163-2, p. 303 – 316.


Six dimensions of technology are identified: engineering/industrial, cognitive, social, commercial, economic, and ethical/legal. Each of them is characterized in terms of main attributes. Moral aspects of sustainability are considered in the context of technological change.


Pelc, K. I., Global consolidation of research and innovation networks, (in Polish: Globalna konsolidacja sieci badawczych i innowacyjnych), Chapter in: L. W. Zacher (ed.), Science – Technology – Society, book in Polish: NaukaTechnikaSpoleczenstwo, Poltext, Warsaw, Poland 2012, ISBN 978-83-7561-163-2, p. 257 – 269.


Kasprzak, W. A., Pelc, K. I. Innovation: Technology and Development Strategies, Book in Polish: InnowacjeStrategie Techniczne i Rozwojowe, Wroclaw University of Technology Press, Wroclaw, Poland, 2012, ISBN 978-83-7493-670-5,  291 pages


The book is addressed to readers interested in development of innovation strategy at different levels ranging from individual companies to regions and nations. The role of education system and universities in creation and strengthening of innovative potential is also presented. National innovation and technology policies are illustrated by examples of European Union, U. S., and Japan. The book is intended to be a useful source of knowledge on innovation and technology strategies of corporations and small- and medium- size companies. It also covers several important topics related to regional development strategies. Knowledge of forecasts is of essential value for planning and managing innovation at all levels. Hence the authors devoted two chapters of the book to forecasting: one is focused on methods and techniques of forecasting, another is presenting a selection of current forecasts.

Pelc, K. I. A model of global network environment for innovation, Proceedings of the 2012 Global Business & International Management Conference, Orlando, FL, January 15 – 17, 2012, ISSN 2155-1219, p. 118 – 129.

Global innovation networks emerged recently and became a trademark of the 21st century’s international management of innovation and technology. They are developing due to continuously increasing complexity of technology and increasing costs of innovation projects. Collaboration became effective thanks to the improving information and communication technology allowing easy and simultaneous access to databases in globally distributed systems. The evolution of global markets with a high degree of openness provided incentives for innovation initiatives reaching across national borders. Scientific, technological and economic networks of collaboration involve companies, institutions and individuals. In many instances they became necessary for solving important problems and for jointly developing risky and/or high cost innovation projects. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual model of global network environment for innovation. The model represents a constellation of interlinked global networks. The paper also presents a new taxonomy of global innovation networks and a brief description of typical structures of those networks. The global aspects of innovation networks are emphasized within four basic spheres of environment: economic, managerial, social, and cultural. The Schumpeterian concept of innovation is applied in analysis of basic features of collaborative innovation. The impact of global business environment on innovation network configurations is assessed according to criteria corresponding to the four basic spheres of that environment.


Pelc, K. I. Multiple perspectives on global innovation networks, In: Hosni, Y. (ed.), Technology and the Global Challenges: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Management of Technology, IAMOT 2011, Miami Beach, FL, April 2011, CD format, ISBN: 0-9815817, Paper # 1569355473, pp.17.


Paper presents a new taxonomy and an integrating definition of global innovation networks based on multiple perspective review and analysis of the networking environment for technology innovation. Several types of innovation networks are included such as inter-firm networks, intra-firm networks, inter-governmental project networks, and open innovation networks. The Schumpeterian approach is applied in the analysis of basic features of collaborative innovation. It allows connecting the technology development process with commercialization, diffusion and proliferation processes. Global aspects of analysis and a model of knowledge flows refer to constellation of four layers in the interlinked global networks: (a) Research networks, (b) Technology innovation networks, (c) Production networks, and (d) Service and distribution networks. Linkages between elements of each network and across the layers are presented through identification and representation of respective streams of knowledge. Different types of networks are assessed as parts of the emerging global ecosystem of technology innovation. Economic, managerial, social and cultural perspectives are applied for that assessment.


Pelc, K. I. Global brain: A dual metaphor, Transformations, Special Issue 2010/2011, 3- 4 (66-67), p. 32 – 49, 2011. ISSN 1230-0292.


Review of the past concepts of global intelligence and knowledge gathering systems leads to new interpretations of the global brain metaphor. Two interpretations are presented in the paper. First of them relates to theoretical concepts of generalized intellectual capabilities of humanity evolving toward an integrated consciousness. The second deals with practical implementations in the form of global knowledge and innovation networks. This approach is illustrated by examples and classification of innovation networks. Duality of the metaphor constitutes the main focus of the paper .


Kurokawa, S., Pelc, K. I., Senoo, D., An interface between strategic management and knowledge management, Preface to the Special Issue, International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, 3, 1 & 2, 2009, p.1 – 3.


The Special Issue of the International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies presents results of research conducted in many countries. It is intended to demonstrate strategic aspects of knowledge management practices in organizations. Review of all nine papers of the Special Issue indicates that relationship and interactions between strategic management of a company and its knowledge management are bi-directional. This general conclusion also applies to individual functional areas of a company. The authors emphasize that effective knowledge management constitutes a fundamental element of innovative capacity of a modern company. (The authors of this Preface are the editors of the Special Issue).

Pelc, K. I. , The evolution of Japanese industrial system in the second half of 20th century, Transformations, Special Issue on Globalization-Technology –Information, 39 – 40, 2008, p. 104-116.

Kasprzak, W., Kozlowska, K., Pelc, K., Scientific and Economic Profile of Lower Silesia: Strategic and Forecasting Perspectives, book in Polish: Specjalizacja Naukowa i Gospodarcza Dolnego Slaska w Swietle Prognoz I Strategii Rozwojowych, Lower Silesia Regional Council, Wroclaw, Poland, 2008, ISBN 978-83-6-425-18.

Pelc, K. I., Multiple perspectives on technology: A conceptual model based on Adam Smith's theory. In: M. Rzadkowolska and A. Gorynska (eds.) Toward the Future (title in Polish: Ku Przyszlosci), p. 411 – 426, Academic and Professional Publishers, Warsaw, Poland, 2008, ISBN 978-83-60807-93-4.

Kasprzak, W. A., Pelc, K. I., Innovation and Technology Strategies, book in Polish : Strategie Innowacyjne i Techniczne, PALMApress, Wroclaw, Poland, 2008, ISBN 83-7076-128-3. (Includes the summary and list of contents in English ).

Pelc, K. I., A Schumpeterian perspective on technology networks. In: E. G. Carayannis  and C. Ziemnowicz (eds.)  Re-discovering Schumpeter, Chapter 14, 229 – 242, Palgrave Macmillan Publishers Ltd., Houndsmills Basingstoke, U. K. , 2007.

Technology networks are viewed as constellations of three platforms: knowledge networks, innovation networks and supply/production networks. Examples of interactive networks are shown and an introduction to analysis of complementarities between technologies in a network are presented in the chapter. Technology networks constitute a new Schumpeterian model of innovation, which complements the Schumpeter Mark I and Mark II models described elsewhere.

Jambekar, A. B., Pelc, K. I., Improvisation model for team performance enhancement in a manufacturing environment, Team Performance Management, 2007, 13, 7/8, p. 259 – 274.

Improvisational practices have potential of bringing an additional dimension to learning process in a typical manufacturing organization. In today's turbulent environment employees should possess both the capability to follow a plan while, at the same time remaining able to respond instinctively to outcomes that are unexpected. Using jazz metaphor the paper offers a model of decision making by an agent and a process view of communication. Authors propose that a culture of manufacturing environment described as "plan what we do, do what we plan, but improvise with bias toward improved system performance" is desirable and should be legitimized. Although the model is conceptual, it will benefit from more empirical or case based research. The authors argue that improvisational experience of other domains of activity e.g. creativity-based artistic productions, jazz band, theatre, etc should be considered for adoption into manufacturing environment after suitable transformation.

Khadke, K., Gershenson, J. K., Pelc, K. I.,  Considering risk potential to enhance engineering decision making during planned product innovation, in: H. Sherif (ed.) Management of Technology for the Service Economy, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Management of Technology, IAMOT 2007, Miami, FL, CD format, 2007, p. 2473 – 2486.

Jambekar, A. B., Pelc, K. I., A model of knowledge processes in a manufacturing company, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management,  2006, 17, 3, p. 315 - 331.

A dynamic model of knowledge and know-how value creation and its interactions with core product and business processes is proposed. It combines three basic elements: business process problem solving, learning, and knowledge accumulation, into one meta-process. A model of management system incorporating the insights from the dynamic model of knowledge creation as applied to a mid-size manufacturing company is presented. A managerial dashboard is proposed as a tool allowing managers to access information from sources inside and outside the company. The tool operates as a hypertext system and includes modules corresponding to the internal core processes of company and its interfaces with customers, suppliers and external knowledge sources. A case study on an instrumentation manufacturing company is included as iillustration of the proposed model.

Pelc, K. I., Knowledge mapping. In:  D. Clarke (ed.) Theory of Technology, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ, 2005, p. 25 – 34.

Knowledge mapping is applied for analysis of  the emerging discipline of management of technology and identifying its source disciplines such as economics, management science, psychology, engineering sciences, systems science, and sociology.. Influence of three paradigms: (1) engineering management paradigm, (2) technology management paradigm, and (3) technological entrepreneurship paradigm is also presented as an evolutionary mechanism for the new discipline.

Kurokawa, S., Pelc, K.  I., Fujisue, K., Strategic management of technology in Japanese firms, International Journal of Technology Management, 2005, 30, 3 & 4, p.  223 – 247,

The paper reviews literature on strategic management of technology in Japanese firms. It is divided into five sections, namely: 1. Technology strategy, 2. Inter-firm technological relations, 3. Knowledge management, 4. New product development, and 5. Japanese innovation system and policy. The authors examine literature on technology strategy, including general strategy, studies on de facto standards, global technology strategy, and studies on small high-tech firms. Then, they investigate inter-firm relations, such as keiretsu and supplier management, technological alliances, spin-offs, and R&D consortia. Finally they review studies on new product development processes and tools, and technology policy, followed by implications for further research.

Pelc, K. I., On Joseph Schumpeter and technology networks. Khalil, T. (ed.) Proceedings of  the 14th International Conference on Management of Technology, IAMOT 2005, May 22 – 26, 2005, Vienna, Austria, Paper ID. 157, pp.14, CD Format, ISBN 0-9712964-7-2, 2005. Vienna.

Concepts of Joseph Schumpeter, related to technology and innovation, are reviewed with an emphasis on principle of “new combination” of elements involved in an economically successful innovation. Contemporary technology and innovation networks may be viewed as an implementation of the Schumpeter’s ideas. Developing the combinations of different technologies, which are mutually complementary, is one of the most creative and productive forms of technological change. Those interconnected technologies constitute a network that involves several types of interface: economic, cognitive, technical, organizational etc. The paper presents a definition of technology network and its theoretical model that consists of three platforms: knowledge network, innovation network and supply network. The model also provides a framework for analysis of complementarities between technologies in a network.

Pelc, K. I., Knowledge generating networks: A Challenge to Intellectual Entrepreneurs, in: S. Kwiatkowski and P. Houdayer (eds.) Intellectual Entrepreneurship: Through or Against Institutions, Warsaw, L.K. Academy of Entrepreneurship and Management,  2004, p. 99 - 121.

Knowledge generating networks, supported by modern information technology, became a new and promising form of collaboration in both basic/exploratory research and in technological R&D. The paper addresses four issues: (1) What are the functions of knowledge generating networks in different phases of R&D activity? (2) What are the properties of knowledge generating networks? (3) What is the role of an intellectual entrepreneur and his/her contribution to the success of the network? (4) What relationship exists between configuration of a network and the need for intellectual entreprenrurship? The conclusion, based on analysis, is that even though institutions may constitute useful framework for some types of knwoledge generating networksm the highest creativity, efficiency and benefits may be expected of those networks, which involve most actively the intellectual entrepreneurs and operate across institutional boundaries or independently of them.

Pelc, K. I., On Adam Smith and a theory of technology, in: Y. Hosni, R. Smith and T. Khalil (eds.) Proceedings of the 13  International Conference on  Management of Technology - IAMOT 2004, Washington, D.C. ,April 3- 7, 2004.,  CD Format, ISBN 0-9712964-6-4, Paper ID 745, Washington, D.C., pp. 10.


Review of definitions and theoretical works concerning technology suggests that different disciplinary frameworks lead to very different interpretations of that basic term. These interpretations are presented in the literature of such disciplines as philosophy, sociology, economics, psychology etc. In search for coherent background and a model of technology, a study of Adam Smith’s (1723 – 1790) historical works and statements was conducted. A hypothesis is formulated that Smith’s economic, social, ethical and legal concepts are relevant to contemporary theory of technology. This connection has been explored. Even though the term technology has never appeared in the Smith’s writings, his concepts refer to multiple aspects of technology and its impact on society. These concepts include: barter and exchange, division of labor, arts and manufactures, inventions, patents, and utility. Mapping of those concepts into a set of attributes of technology, as an object of management, is proposed. It is graphically demonstrated and described.


Kasprzak, W. A., Pelc, K. I., Technology Strategies and Forecasts, book in Polish: Strategie Techniczne i Prognozy, ATUT Wroclaw Educational Publishers, Wroclaw, Poland. ISBN 83-89247-32-1,  2003.


The book covers basic issues of technology strategy and R&D program management in a corporation. It also presents international competition in innovation processes with an emphasis on the innovation programs in the European Union. In addition, the book includes a review of recent forecasts for different fields of technology developed in Japan, U. K. and the U. S.



Pelc, K. I., Knowledge Mapping: The Consolidation of the Technology Management Discipline, Knowledge, Technology and Policy, Vol. 15, No. 3, Fall 2002, 36 – 44.


The paper presents a method of conceptual mapping of knowledge during the consolidation process of an interdisciplinary domain into an emerging discipline. This approach allows to track evolution of an emerging discipline of technology management. Knowledge consolidation is the result of colliding source disciplines and simultaneous influence of changing paradigms. Three paradigms have played major role in recent development of the emerging discipline: (1) Engineering management paradigm, (2) Management of technology paradigm, and (3) Technological entrepreneurship paradigm. The changing needs of practice drive the process. Knowledge mapping approach identifies elements of that process. Those elements (concepts) are identified and used for building a map of knowledge. Impact of different source disciplines (such as economics, management science, psychology, engineering sciences, systems science, sociology etc) is characterized by affinities they have with concepts developed and applied in the emerging discipline. Linkages among those concepts are graphically interpreted in the map of knowledge.



Jambekar, A. B., Pelc, K. I., Managing a Manufacturing Company in a Wired World, International Journal of Information Technology and Management, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2002, 131 – 141.


Under new conditions of unlimited access to information technology, the management of manufacturing company will be changed to take advantage of new capabilities based on internet, intranet and computing and simulation technologies. A conceptual model of management system, applicable in small and medium size manufacturing companies, has been developed. It integrates physical, information and knowledge value chains. Based on this concept, a managerial “dashboard” is proposed as a tool allowing a manager to access information from sources inside and outside the company, to check financial/economic conditions and to simulate alternative courses of actions.



Pelc, K. I., Technology Management: The Origins and Shape of a New Discipline (original title in Polish: Zarzadzanie techniczne: geneza i ksztalt nowej dyscypliny), Transformations, 2002,  No.1 – 4 (31 – 34), 102 – 106 (in Polish).



Pelc, K. I., The Evolution of Japanese Industrial System, (accepted and forthcoming), Transformations, pp. 24.


Historical, cultural, structural, economic and administrative factors have been simultaneously contributing to the technological and organizational transformations that took place in Japan during the last half-century. Traditional social norms and values, such as group identity, harmony, discipline, systematic process orientation, and long-term view, combined with modern scientifc, technological, and organizational knowledge have shaped the Japanese industrial system. At the same time, the industrial system, corporate management and the state of technology and innovation have been influenced by a uniquely Japanese structure of business alliances and by the governmental policies. An overview of those interconnected and mutually supporting forces is the subject of this paper. Three areas are discussed: (1) Internal factors of success (or failure) of Japanese companies, (2) Technology strategies of Japanese companies, and (3) Industrial system of Japan.



Pelc, K. I., A Knowledge Mapping Approach to Consolidation of Technology Management As a Discipline, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Management of Technology IAMOT 2002, 2002, Miami, FL. CD-format, Paper No. 135. pp. 10.


Pelc, K. I., Knowledge Fusion Processes in Technology Management, Proceedings of the International Conference on Industry, Engineering, and ManagementSystems, and 28th International Conference on Computersa and Industrial Engineering, ICC&IE/IEMS, March 5-7, 2001, Cocoa Beach, FL,Randall Harris (ed.), p.487-492.

Concept of knowledge fusion process is defined and applied to analysis of problem situations in management of technology. Review of knowledge fusion processes is presented for such areas as: interdisciplinary R&D, creation of hybrid technologies, technological forecasting, and development of new products/processes. It leads to the conclusion that the essential task of a technology manager is to create conditions favorable for knowledge fusion processes to occur.

Pelc, K. I., Forecasting for the purposes of science policy, in: Satish C. Seth, Managing Development for Future: A Study in Transition and Change Management, Gyan, Delhi, India, 2001, chapter 10, ISBN 81-212-0678-2.

Pelc, K. I., Counter-trends and Potential Trend Conversions in the Early 21st Century, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 62, 135 - 137, 1999.

Several currently dominating trends in technological and economic development are accompanied by or lead to emergence of counter-trends. The latter, if intensified, may cause trend conversions in the future. Three potential trend conversions are likely to have impact on situation in the early 21st century: (1) From information search to information addiction, overload and aversion, (2) From technological competency (of a few) to technological illiteracy (of many), and (3) From globalism to localism.

Pelc, K. I., Multiple Perspectives on Knowledge Generating Networks, PICMET'99 Proceedings, Kocaoglu, D. F. and Anderson, T. R. eds. (PICMET'99 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, 1999) Vol. 1, Book of Summaries, p.131 , and Vol. 2. (Full text) pp. 6.

Analysis of knowledge generating networks is conducted by using the Linstone multiple perspective approach. Personal, organizational and technical perspectives allow identifying properties of knowledge networks. Those properties have impact on functions and determine effectiveness of knowledge networks in R&D. Functions of knowledge networks are presented and compared for two classes of creative processes: basic scientific research and technological R&D.

Kasprzak, W. and Pelc, K., Technological Challenges: Forecasts and Strategies, book published in Polish: Wyzwania Technologiczne: Prognozy i Strategie, Professional Business School Press , Cracow, Poland, 1999.

The book consists of the following chapters: (1) Initial experiences in forecast-based economic planning, (2) Rational foundations of technological forecasting and economic development strategies, (3) Methods of forecasting: Delphi method, (4) Technology strategy and forecasts, (5) R&D programs and technology strategy. The appendix presents a review of current forecasts for technology development in the early XXI century.

 Pelc, K. I., Technology and innovation in Japan, in: R. C. Dorf (ed.), The Technology Management Handbook, Chapman & Hall/CRCnetBASE 2000, (CD Format),CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 22.5., 1999.

Historical, cultural, economic, structural and administrative factors have been simultaneously contributing to the technological and organizational transformations that took place in Japan during last half-century. The system of technology and innovation has been influenced by a uniquely Japanese structure of business alliances and by the governmental technology policy. Japanese concept of innovation cycle, evolution of Japanese technology, and technology strategies of Japanese companies are discussed in the paper. Illustrative data on technology strategy metrics for selected Japanese companies are presented for 1985 - 1997. National science and technology policy of the Japanese government is reviewed.

Pelc, K. I., Virtual networks. in: R. C. Dorf (ed.). The Technology Management Handbook, CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 18.24 – 18.28, 1998.

Basic properties of virtual networks and their role in R&D and new technology development are presented in this chapter.

Pelc, K. I., Patterns of Knowledge Generating Networks, in: D. F. Kocaoglu and T. R. Anderson (eds.), "Innovation in Technology Management," PICMET, Portland, OR, 1997, p. 717 - 720.

The paper presents a concept of knowledge generating network as a model of R&D system. Conceptual, personal and organizational networks are reviewed and an integrated model of knowledge generating system for technological innovation is proposed. This model assumes that organizational networks support connections among individual researchers (personal network) who create new concepts and solutions which add to the conceptual network. A hypothesis is presented concerning possibility of using the neural network as a metaphor in further studies on R&D networks.

Pelc, K. I., Metrology as an Interdisciplinary Domain of Knowledge (published in Polish: Metrologia jako dziedzina interdyscyplinarna) in : J. Mroczka (ed.), "Metrologia," Wroclaw University of Technology, WUT Press, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wroclawskiej, Wroclaw, Poland, 1997, p. 53 - 60.


Pelc, K. I., Book Review : Gary L. Downey, “The Machine in Me: An Antropologist Sits Among Computer Engineers,” Routledge, New York, N. Y., 1998, “Technological Forecasting and Social Change,” 67, 2001, p.105-107.

Pelc, K. I., Book Review : Ronald Mascitelli, « The Growth Warriors : Creating Sustainable Global Advantage for America’s Technology Industries,” Northridge, CA, “R&D Management”  30, 2000, p. 101-103.


Pelc, K. I.,  Book Review : Thomas H. Davenport, “Information Ecology: Mastering the Information and Knowledge Environment,” Oxford University Press, New York, N. Y., 1997, “Technological Forecasting and Social Change”  59, 1998, p. 207-209.


Pelc, K. I.,  Book Review : R. Oakley, W. During, S. M. Mukhtar (eds), “New Technology-Based Firms in the 1990’s,”  R&D Management”  30, 2000, p. 372-374.

Pelc, K. I., Book Review: Starr R. Hiltz, "The Virtual Classroom: Learning without Limits via Computer Networks," Ablex, Norwood, N.J., 1994, "Technological Forecasting and Social Change," 51(3), 1996, p. 303 - 305.

Pelc, K. I., Knowledge Mapping: A Tool for Management of Technology, chapter in: Gerhard H. Gaynor (ed.), "Handbook of Technology Management," McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y. 1996, Chapter 13, pp. 13.1 - 13.19.

Chapter Outline:
Introduction. Application of knowledge mapping for technology management. Methods of knowledge mapping: General remarks about knowledge representation. Chronological mapping. Co-word based mapping. Cognitive mapping. Conceptual mapping. Conclusion. References.

Jambekar, A. B., Pelc, K. I., Knowledge Imperative and Learning Processes in Technology Management, chapter in: Gerhard H. Gaynor (ed.), "Handbook of Technology Management," McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y. 1996, Chapter 19, pp. 19.1. - 19.17.

Chapter Outline:
Introduction. Knowledge imperative: Types of knowledge for management of technology. Education and training for management of technology. Learning processes in an organization: Towards definition of organizational learning. Individual learning. Group or team learning. Theory building process - learning. Systems thinking: The foundation of the learning organizations. Challenge for managers - leaders. References.

Pelc, K. I., Maps of Virtual Structures in R&D, in Proceedings of the International Engineering Management Conference IEMC '96, "Managing Virtual Enterprises," Vancouver, Canada, August 18-20, 1996, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc., Piscataway, N. J., 1996, pp. 459 - 463.

Purpose of this paper is to propose an analytical approach to virtual structures in R&D. Those structures emerge as a consequence of two trends: (1) integration of knowledge in research and development, and (2) growth of new communication media allowing for immediate access to and exchange of expertise. Evolution of collaborative structures is reviewed, ranging from traditional pattern of the "invisible college" to current virtual structures of R&D projects implemented in a distributed environment. Selected properties of virtual structures, such as virtual co-location, current research protocols, shared lab notes, shared data bases, interactive evaluation etc., are reviewed. Those properties determine new conditions for management of R&D. Maps of virtual structures are considered to be a potentially effective tool in R&D management. Configurations, advantages and limitations of virtual structures are discussed. Maps of structures are proposed and illustrated with examples.


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